The Burgess Shale

Thaumaptilon walcotti

Thaumaptilon walcotti (USNM 468028) – Holotype, part and counterpart. Complete specimen. Specimen height = 212 mm. Specimen dry – direct light (far left and far right), wet – polarized light (middle images). Walcott Quarry.

© SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION – NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. PHOTOS: JEAN-BERNARD CARON

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Unranked clade (stem group cnidarians)
Species name: Thaumaptilon walcotti
Remarks:

Thaumaptilon was first interpreted as a Cambrian member of the frondose Ediacaran Biota, related to cnidarians and particularly to a group of modern anthozoans called pennatulaceans or sea pens (Conway Morris, 1993). This connection is no longer widely accepted (Antcliffe and Brasier, 2008); Thaumaptilon has also been proposed as a critical link between Ediacaran fronds and ctenophores (Dzik, 2002). A position in the cnidarian stem group (i.e. more primitive than the anthozoans) has been supported by the discovery of similar fossils in the Chengjiang Biota (Shu et al., 2006).

Described by: Conway Morris
Description date: 1993
Etymology:

Thaumaptilon – from the Greek thauma, “wonderful,” and ptilon, “soft feather,” after its feather-like appearance.

walcotti – after Charles Walcott, discoverer of the Burgess Shale.

Type Specimens: Holotype –USNM468028 in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: none.

Other deposits: none.

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

The Walcott Quarry on Fossil Ridge.

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

Walcott had studied and photographed Thaumaptilon, but never published his work. The fossil specimens were formally described in 1993 by Conway Morris, who had also alluded to them in previous work (1979; 1989; 1990).

Description:

Morphology:

Thaumaptilon is an oblong frond that somewhat resembles a feather; it is bilaterally symmetrical, with a central axis supporting a number of lateral branches. The branches appear to be connected to one another by narrow canals. A blunt holdfast attached the animal to the sea floor. Of the three known specimens, the largest is 21 cm tall and reaches 5 cm across; the smaller specimens – presumed to be juveniles – are only a few centimetres long. The frond is flattened, and tapers slightly towards its tip. It consists of about three dozen branches angled at 45º to the central axis, and primarily grew by inflation – perhaps with some addition of branches by apical budding. Unlike modern sea pens, Thaumaptilon’s branches attach to a common base. Lines of pustules on one side of the frond have been interpreted as retracted zooids (individual members of a colonial organism), which are arranged very haphazardly in comparison to the neat combs seen in modern sea pens.

Abundance:

Only three specimens are known.

Maximum Size:
210 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

The holdfast would have anchored the organism to the soft sediment of the sea floor, and could perhaps contract to adjust the height and angle of the frond. Based on the interpretation of the pustules as zooids, a colonial, suspension-feeding lifestyle has been proposed. It has been suggested that Thaumaptilon could retract into its stem when threatened, for protection (Conway Morris, 1998).

References:

ANTCLIFFE, J. B. AND M. D. BRASIER. 2008. Charnia at 50: Developmental models for Ediacaran fronds. Palaeontology, 51(1): 11-26.

CONWAY MORRIS, S. 1979. The Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian) fauna. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 10(1): 327-349.

CONWAY MORRIS, S. 1989. Burgess Shale faunas and the Cambrian explosion. Science, 246(4928): 339.

CONWAY MORRIS, S. 1990. Late Precambrian and Cambrian soft-bodied faunas. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 18(1): 101-122.

CONWAY MORRIS, S. 1993. Ediacaran-like fossils in Cambrian Burgess Shale-type faunas of North America. Palaeontology, 36(3): 593-635.

CONWAY MORRIS, S. 1998. The Crucible of Creation, the Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals. Oxford University Press, 242 p.

SHU, D. G., S. CONWAY MORRIS, J. HAN, Y. LI, X. L. ZHANG, H. HUA, Z. F. ZHANG, J. N. LIU, J. F. GUO, Y. YAO AND K. YASUI. 2006. Lower Cambrian vendobionts from China and early diploblast evolution. Science, 312(5774): 731-734.

Other Links:

http://paleobiology.si.edu/burgess/thaumaptilon.html

Stephenospongia magnipora

Stephenospongia magnipora (ROM 43127) – Holotype. Fragment of the only known specimen of the species showing large holes in the wall of this sponge. Specimen height = 44 mm. Specimen dry – polarized light. Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

© ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM. PHOTO: JEAN-BERNARD CARON

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Hexactinellida (Order: Reticulosa)
Species name: Stephenospongia magnipora
Remarks:

Stephenospongia is placed in the Family Hintzespongiidae (primitive hexactinellids). Hexactinellid sponges (glass sponges) have a skeleton composed of four to six-pointed spicules. They are considered to be an early branch within the Porifera phylum due to their distinctive composition.

Described by: Rigby
Description date: 1986
Etymology:

Stephenospongia – from Mount Stephen (3,199 m), a mountain peak in Yoho National Park, named after George Stephen (1829 – 1921), first president of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Latin spongia, meaning “sponge.”

magnipora – from the Latin magnus, “great,” and porus, “pore.” The name makes reference to the large pores present in the skeleton of this sponge.

Type Specimens: Holotype –ROM43127 in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: none.

Other deposits: none.

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

The Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

Stephenospongia was described by Rigby (1986) (see also Rigby and Collins 2004) based on a single specimen discovered by the Royal Ontario Museum in 1982.

Description:

Morphology:

Stephenospongia has a conical and almost cylindrical shape. The skeleton is composed of six rayed spicules (called hexactines) typical of the hexactinellid sponges. The spicules mesh together to form a single layer and are arranged in an irregular fashion especially around holes in the sponge wall. Prominent holes organized in vertical and horizontal rows are separated by tracts of spicules with ray lengths reaching more than one centimetre. The basal and top parts are not preserved.

Abundance:

Only a single specimen is known and comes from the Trilobite Beds.

Maximum Size:
44 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

Stephenospongia would have lived attached to the sea floor. Particles of organic matter were extracted from the water as they passed through canals in the sponge’s wall.

References:

RIGBY, J. K. 1986. Sponges of the Burgess shale (Middle Cambrian), British Columbia. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 2: 105 p.

RIGBY, J. K. AND D. COLLINS. 2004. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and Stephen Formations, British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum Contributions in Science (1): 155 p.

Other Links:

None

Sphenothallus sp.

Taxonomy:

Sphenothallus sp. (GSC 134789). Fragment of a large specimen showing longitudinal thickenings clearly differentiated near the aperture area (to the right). A Micromitra (Dictyonina) brachiopod is attached to the lower part of the tube. Approximate specimen length = 50 mm. Specimen dry – direct light. Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

© GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA. PHOTO: JEAN-BERNARD CARON

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Unranked clade (stem group cnidarians)
Species name: Sphenothallus sp.
Remarks:

Sphenothallus has been compared to some form of tubiculous annelid worm or the sessile polyp stage of a scyphozoan jellyfish that builds tapered, chitinous tubes fixed to the substrate by an attachment disc (Van Iten et al., 2002).

Described by: Van Iten et al.
Description date: 2002
Etymology:

Sphenothallus – from the Greek sphen, “wedge”, and thallos, “branch.”

Species name not determined.

Type Specimens: Not applicable
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: Many shared similarities suggest that other thecate Burgess Shale fossils such as Byronia annulataCambrorhytium majorCfragilis and Tubulella flagellum, may be related to Sphenothallus sp.

Other deposits: Other species occur worldwide in rocks from the Cambrian to the Silurian periods. Sphenothallus is also known in the Kaili Formation (Zhu et al., 2000).

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

The Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

Two specimens from the Trilobite Beds were illustrated in 2002 (Van Iten et al.). A third previously unrecognized specimen was identified in the Geological Survey of Canada collections in Ottawa (Billings collection) in the Spring of 2010. Owing to the relatively low degree of morphological variations among all known species, it is not currently possible to assign the Burgess Shale form to any particular species without better preserved specimens.

Description:

Morphology:

The chitinophosphatic tube (theca) of Sphenothallus consists of longitudinal thickenings which are particularly obvious towards the aperture area. The tube is gently curved and does not seem to branch. The maximum diameter of the largest specimen is about 4 mm for a length of about 75 mm. A thin wall is present between the longitudinal thickenings and terminates in a smooth margin near the aperture, a couple of millimeters beyond the longitudinal thickenings. The tube is roughly circular in the apical region and is very slender, with the two longitudinal thickenings less differentiated in this area. The surface of the entire tube including thickenings is smooth with no evidence of ridges or annulations. All three specimens lack the apical ends, so it is not evident that this species had a holdfast and there is no evidence of soft-tissue preservation.

Abundance:

Only three specimens known from the Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

Maximum Size:
75 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

The theca of Sphenothallus was likely attached to the substrate via an apical disc as can be seen in other better known species. The absence of soft tissue preservation makes the assignment to a particular feeding strategy tentative. By comparison with possible related forms such as Cambrorhytium, a carnivorous or suspension feeding habit seems possible.

References:

VAN ITEN, H., M.-Y. ZHU AND D. COLLINS. 2002. First report of Sphenothallus Hall, 1847 in the Middle Cambrian. Journal of Paleontology, 76: 902-905.

ZHU, M.-Y., H. VAN ITEN, R. S. COX, Y.-L. ZHAO AND B.-D. ERDTMANN. 2000. Occurrence of Byronia Matthew and Sphenothallus Hall in the Lower Cambrian of China. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 74: 227-238.

Other Links:

None

Protospongia hicksi

Protospongia hicksi? (ROM 43826). Typical isolated cruciform spicules. Size of widest ray = 15 mm. Specimen dry – direct light. Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

© Royal Ontario Museum. Photo: Jean-Bernard Caron

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Hexactinellida (Order: Reticulosa)
Species name: Protospongia hicksi
Remarks:

Protospongia is related to a primitive group of Hexactinellid sponges and resembles Diagoniella (Rigby, 1986). Hexactinellid sponges (glass sponges) have a skeleton composed of four to six-pointed siliceous spicules, they are considered to be an early branch within the Porifera phylum due to their distinctive composition.

Described by: Hinde
Description date: 1888
Etymology:

Protospongia – from the Greek protos, “first,” and the Latin spongia, “sponge.”

hicksi – after H. Hicks, a palaeontologist who worked on fossil sponges.

Type Specimens: Unknown
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: none.

Other deposits: Protospongia is widely known from the Cambrian to the Silurian in many siliciclastic and carbonate deposits.

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone to late Middle Cambrian Bolaspidella Assemblage Zone (approximately 505 million years ago)
Principal localities:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: The Walcott Quarry on Fossil Ridge and several smaller localities on Mount Stephen.

Other deposits: P. hicksi occurs in the Middle Cambrian Marjum Formation (Rigby, 1966).

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

First described in 1888 by Hinde, this species was recognized from the Burgess Shale by Walcott in 1920. The genus was redescribed by Rigby in 1986 when reviewing the Burgess Shale sponges. In 2004, Rigby and Collins examined new material collected by the Royal Ontario Museum possibly attributable to this genus.

Description:

Morphology:

This sponge has been described only from fragments in the Burgess Shale so its shape and maximal size is unknown. However, specimens collected elsewhere show that this sponge had a globular to conical shape. The walls of this sponge were thin with a single layer of spicules. These spicules are known as stauracts, and differ from the normal six rayed spicules of the hexactinellid sponges in that they have two reduced rays which give them a distinctive cross-shape. Contrary to Diagoniella, the spicules are arranged parallel to the main axes of the sponge which gives it the distinctive square appearance. There are six orders of spicules present in the skeleton.

Abundance:

Protospongia is rare in the Walcott Quarry where it represents about 0.24% of the community (Caron and Jackson, 2008).

Maximum Size:
50 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

Protospongia would have lived attached to the sea floor. Food particles were extracted from the water as it passed through canals in the sponge’s wall.

References:

CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.

HINDE, G. J. 1888. A monograph of the British fossil sponges, Part 2, 93-188 p.

RIGBY, J. K. 1966. Protospongia hicksi Hinde from the Middle Cambrian of Western Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 40: 549-554.

RIGBY, J. K. 1986. Sponges of the Burgess shale (Middle Cambrian), British Columbia. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 2: 105 p.

RIGBY, J. K. AND D. COLLINS. 2004. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and Stephen Formations, British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum Contributions in Science (1): 155 p.

WALCOTT, C. D. 1920. Middle Cambrian Spongiae. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology IV. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 67(6): 261-365.

Other Links:

None

Protoprisma annulata

Protoprisma annulata (ROM 53557) – Holotype. Nearly complete specimen showing a clump of branches attached to a basal part (coated with ammonium chloride sublimate to show details). Specimen height = 150 mm. Specimen dry – direct light. Tulip Beds (S7) on Mount Stephen.

© Royal Ontario Museum. Photo: Jean-Bernard Caron

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Hexactinellida (Order: Reticulosa)
Species name: Protoprisma annulata
Remarks:

Hexactinellid sponges (glass sponges) have a skeleton composed of four to six-pointed siliceous spicules. They are considered to be an early branch within the Porifera phylum due to their distinctive composition.

Described by: Rigby and Collins
Description date: 2004
Etymology:

Protoprisma – from the Greek protos, “first,” and prisma, “prism.” This name refers to the early occurrence of this prismatic sponge.

annulata – from the Latin annulatus, meaning “ringed, or circular.” The name makes reference to the annulated growth form of this species.

Type Specimens: Holotype –ROM53557, in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: none.

Other deposits: none.

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

The Tulip Beds (S7) on Mount Stephen and the Raymond Quarry on Fossil Ridge.

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

Ribgy and Collins described this genus in 2004 based on material collected by the Royal Ontario Museum.

Description:

Morphology:

This sponge has an elongate annulated shape with several branches, which give it a hand-like appearance. Each branch has vertical angular ridges which results in a prismatic cross section. The ridges and the troughs between them are composed of fine hexactine spicules, cross-connected by horizontal strands that thatch the skeleton together. The type specimen is almost complete at 15 cm tall and shows that all of the branches originate from a central point at the base. The base of the sponge would have had an attachment structure to keep the sponge anchored in the sediment surface. As neither of the two specimens recovered are complete, it is not known what the top of this sponge would have looked like.

Abundance:

Protoprisma is known only from two specimens, one collected from the Tulip Bed (S7) locality on Mount Stephen and one from the Raymond Quarry on Fossil Ridge.

Maximum Size:
150 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

Protoprisma would have lived attached to the sea floor. Particles of organic matter were extracted from the water as they passed through canals in the sponge’s wall.

References:

RIGBY, J. K. AND D. COLLINS. 2004. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and Stephen Formations, British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum Contributions in Science (1): 155 p.

Other Links:

None

Priscansermarinus barnetti

Priscansermarinus barnetti (ROM 36064) – Holotype (specimen A). Slab with 62 individuals including the holotype (white frame to the left and close up to the right). Specimen length (holotype) = 32 mm. Specimen dry – polarized light (both images). Walcott Quarry talus.

© Royal Ontario Museum. Photos: Jean-Bernard Caron

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Non applicable
Species name: Priscansermarinus barnetti
Remarks:

Originally proposed as a crustacean arthropod and a possible member of the pedunculate lepadomorph barnacles within Maxillopoda (Subclass Thecostraca) (Collins and Rudkin, 1981), its affinities have since been questioned and remain equivocal.

Described by: Collins and Rudkin
Description date: 1981
Etymology:

Priscansermarinus – from the Latin priscus “of ancient times;” anser, “goose” and marinus, “sea,” (together forming “sea goose”) in reference to the modern goose barnacles.

barnetti – after Robert Barnett, member of the 1975 ROMexpedition, who found the first specimens.

Type Specimens: Holotype –ROM36064a in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: none.

Other deposits: none.

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

The Walcott and Raymond Quarries on Fossil Ridge, Mount Field.

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

The “discovery” slab bearing 62 individuals of a previously unknown organism was found by Robert Barnett in talus (scree) beneath the Walcott Quarry level during the ROM’s inaugural Burgess Shale expedition in 1975. Priscansermarinus barnetti was described and named in 1981, and interpreted as a probable stalked (pedunculate) lepadomorph (goose) barnacle, pending recovery of additional specimens preserving definitive characters. The barnacle, and even the arthropod, affinities of Priscansermarinus have since been questioned (Briggs, 1983; Briggs et al., 2005).

Description:

Morphology:

Priscansermarinus consists of two primary components – an ovate triangular shaped, laterally compressed “body,” and a short, thick “stalk.” The body region shows a highly reflective centralized subtriangular region that was originally interpreted as evidence for a thin non-biomineralized external “plate” on either side of the body. This is now recognized to be an internal structure of greater anatomical complexity. The stalk, or stolon, which appears to emerge from the body rather than blend into it, is cylindrical in shape and at least moderately flexible; the distal end bears a terminal disc exhibiting a radiating pattern. In most known specimens, the stalk comprises slightly more than half of the total length of the animal.

Abundance:

Moderately common at some Raymond Quarry levels; uncommon elsewhere.

Maximum Size:
50 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

This species is too poorly known to describe its ecology with great certainty. The terminal disk at the base of its stolon was probably used for anchoring the animal in or on the mud. Without any apparent tentacles and obvious feeding structures, a suspension feeding mode of life is a strong possibility.

References:

BRIGGS, D. E. G. 1983. Affinities and early evolution of the Crustacea: the evidence of the Cambrian fossils, p. 1-22. In F. R. Schram (ed.), Crustacean Phylogeny. Balkema, Rotterdam.

BRIGGS, D. E. G., M. D. SUTTON AND D. J. SIVETER. 2005. Metamorphosis in a Silurian barnacle. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 272: 2365-2369.

COLLINS, D. AND RUDKIN, D. M. 1981. Priscansermarinus barnetti, a probable lepadomorph barnacle from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Journal of Paleontology, 55: 1006-1015.

Other Links:

None

Leptomitus lineatus

Leptomitus undulatus (ROM 53571) – Holotype (part and counterpart). Only known specimen of this species showing partial base, prominent ridges and top part (osculum). Specimen height = 78 mm. Specimen wet – direct light. Walcott Quarry.

© Royal Ontario Museum. Photos: Jean-Bernard Caron

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Demospongea (Order: Monaxonida)
Species name: Leptomitus lineatus
Remarks:

Leptomitus is considered a primitive demosponge (Rigby, 1986). Demosponges, the same group that are harvested as bath sponges, represent the largest class of sponges today.

Described by: Walcott
Description date: 1920
Etymology:

Leptomitus – from the Greek lept, “slender,” and mitos, “thread.” This name refers to the overall shape of the sponge.

lineatus – from the Latin lineatus, “streaked.” This refers to the wrinkle appearance of this sponge.

Type Specimens: Lectotype –USNM66448 (L. lineatus) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA. Holotype –ROM53558 (L. undulatus) in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: L. undulatus Rigby and Collins 2004 from the Walcott Quarry.

Other deposits: L. zitteli Walcott, 1886 from the Middle Cambrian Parker Slate in Vermont; L. metta Rigby, 1983 from the Middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah; L. conicus García-Bellido et al., 2007 from the Middle Cambrian Murero Formation of Spain; L. teretiusculus Chen, Hou and Lu, 1989 from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota in China (see Rigby and Hou, 1995); unidentified species from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in China (Yang et al., 2003).

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Glossopleura Zone to Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

The Walcott Quarry on Fossil Ridge. The Tulip Beds (S7) and the Collins Quarry on Mount Stephen.

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

Leptomitus was originally described by Charles Walcott (1920) as a new genus “Tuponia” along with several species (T. lineatea, T. flexilis, T. flexilis var. intermedia). This genus was later synonymized by Resser and Howell (1938) with Leptomitus, a genus named by Walcott in 1886. Ribgy (1986) redescribed the Burgess Shale sponges including Leptomitus and considered L. flexilis to be a junior synonym of L. lineatus. Rigby and Collins (2004) added a second species L. undulatus based on new material collected by the Royal Ontario Museum.

Description:

Morphology:

L. lineatus is an elongate tubular sponge with a double-layered skeleton. The outer layer is composed of long monoaxial spicules (simple spicules with pointed ends) arranged vertically along the length of the sponge. The varying thicknesses of these elongate spicules give the sponge a distinctive wrinkly appearance in the fossils. The inner layer is composed of tiny horizontal spicules that form an unclumped thatch; these tufts can be seen at the oscular margin (opening at the top of the sponge). The base of the sponge is rounded in shape and would have had a small holdfast structure. L. undulatus has the same wall structure as L. lineatus but has a rounder goblet shaped skeleton.

Abundance:

L. lineatus is relatively common in the Walcott Quarry and represents 0.26% of the community (Caron and Jackson, 2008). L. undulatus is known from a single specimen.

Maximum Size:
360 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

Leptomitus would have lived attached to the sea floor. Particles of organic matter were extracted from the water as they passed through canals in the sponge’s wall.

References:

CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.

CHEN, J. Y., X. G. HOU AND H. Z. LU. 1989. Lower Cambrian leptomitids (Demospongea), Chengjiang, Yunnan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 28: 17-31.

GARCÍA-BELLIDO, D. C., R. GOZALO, J. B. CHIRIVELLA MARTORELL AND E. LIÑÁN. 2007. The demosponge genus Leptomitus and a new species from the Middle Cambrian of Spain. . Palaeontology, 50: 467-478.

RESSER, C. F. AND B. F. HOWELL. 1938. Lower Cambrian Olenellus Zone of the Appalachians. Geological Society of American Bulletin, 49: 195-248.

RIGBY, J. K. 1983. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Marjum Limestone from the House Range and Drum Mountains of Western Millard County, Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 57: 240-270.

RIGBY, J. K. 1986. Sponges of the Burgess shale (Middle Cambrian), British Columbia. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 2: 105 p.

RIGBY, J. K. AND D. COLLINS. 2004. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and Stephen Formations, British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum Contributions in Science (1): 155 p.

YANG, R., W. ZHANG, L. JIANG AND H. GAO. 2003. Chengjiang biota from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, Zunyi County, Guizhou Province, China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 77: 145-150.

WALCOTT, C. 1886. Second contribution to the studies on the Cambrian faunas of North America. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 30: 1-369.

WALCOTT, C. D. 1920. Middle Cambrian Spongiae. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology IV. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 67(6): 261-365.

Other Links:

None

Hazelia palmata

3D animation of Hazelia conferta and other sponges (Choia ridleyi, Diagoniella cyathiformis, Eiffelia globosa, Pirania muricata, Vauxia bellula, and Wapkia elongata) and Chancelloria eros a sponge-like form covered of star-shaped spines.

Animation by Phlesch Bubble © Royal Ontario Museum

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Demospongea (Order: Monaxonida)
Species name: Hazelia palmata
Remarks:

Hazelia is considered a primitive demosponge, close to Falospongia and Crumillospongia (Rigby, 1986). Demosponges, the same group that are harvested as bath sponges, represent the largest class of sponges today.

Described by: Walcott
Description date: 1920
Etymology:

Hazelia – from Hazel Peak (3,151 m), the older name for Mount Aberdeen, located 4 km SSW of Lake Louise in Banff National Park, Alberta. Mount Aberdeen was named in honor of Lord Gordon in 1897, the Marquis of Aberdeen and the Governor General of Canada from 1893 to 1898.

palmata – from the Latin palm, “palm of the hand,” referring to the broad cup-shape of this sponge and its resemblance to a cupped hand.

Type Specimens: Lectotypes – USNM 66463 (H. palmata – type species), 66465 (H. delicatula), USNM 66505 (H. dignata), USNM 66473 (H. grandis), USNM 66474 (H. nodulifera), USNM 66472 (H. obscura); Holotypes – USNM 66476 (H. conferta), USNM 66779 (H. crateria), USNM 66475 (H. luteria) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA. Holotype –ROM53573 (H. lobata) in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: H. conferta Walcott, 1920, H. crateria Rigby, 1986, H. delicatula Walcott, 1920, H. dignata Walcott, 1920, H. grandis Walcott, 1920, H. lobata Rigby and Collins, 2004, H. luteria Rigby, 1986, H. nodulifera Walcott, 1920, H. obscura Walcott, 1920. Most species known from the Walcott Quarry (See Rigby, 1986 and Rigby and Collins, 2004).

Other deposits: H. walcotti (Resser and Howell, 1938) from the Early Cambrian Kinzers Formation of Pennsylvania (See Rigby, 1987).

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone to Bolaspidella Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: Hazelia is particularly common in the Walcott Quarry and is less common in the Raymond and Collins Quarries on Fossil Ridge. Many species also occur on Mount Stephen at the Trilobite Beds, Tulip Beds (S7), and other smaller localities.

Other deposits: H. palmata Walcott, 1920 from the Middle Cambrian Marjum Formation (Rigby et al., 1997).

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

Walcott described seven species of Hazelia in his 1920 paper on the Burgess Shale sponges. The genus was redescribed by Rigby in 1986 when two new species were added and one excluded from the genus (H. mammillata now referred to Moleculospina mammillata). Rigby and Collins (2004) added another species based on new material collected by the Royal Ontario Museum.

Description:

Morphology:

Species of Hazelia have a large variation in morphology with wide cup-shaped forms (H. palmata, H. crateria, H. luteria), long cone-shaped forms (H. conferta, H. grandis, H. obscura), branched forms (H. delicatula, H. dignata), and nodular to lobate forms (H. lobata, H. nodulifera). While there is this significant variety of overall shapes, the different species of Hazelia have a common microstructure. The walls are thin and composed of small tightly packed simple spicules that form a net-like structure and diverge outwards producing a plumose pattern. The walls are perforated with small canals to allow water flow. The base of each sponge would have had a small attachment structure.

In addition to its open shield-like shape, H. palmata possesses distinct radial tracts of spicules which go beyond the margins of the sponge for at least a couple of millimeters.

Abundance:

Hazelia is very common in the Walcott Quarry and represents 9.5% of the community (Caron and Jackson, 2008).

Maximum Size:
150 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

Hazelia would have lived attached to the sea floor. Particles of organic matter were extracted from the water as they passed through canals in the sponge’s wall.

References:

CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.

RIGBY, J. K. 1986. Sponges of the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian), British Columbia. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 2: 105 p.

RIGBY, J. K. 1987. Early Cambrian sponges from Vermont and Pennsylvania, the only ones described from North America. Journal of Paleontology, 61: 451-461.

RIGBY, J. K. L. F. GUNTHER AND F. GUNTHER. 1997. The first occurrence of the Burgess Shale Demosponge Hazelia palmata Walcott, 1920, in the Cambrian of Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 71: 994-997.

RIGBY, J. K. AND D. COLLINS. 2004. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and Stephen Formations, British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum Contributions in Science (1): 155 p.

WALCOTT, C. D. 1920. Middle Cambrian Spongiae. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology IV. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 67(6): 261-365.

Other Links:

None

Hamptoniella foliata

Hamptoniella foliata (ROM 43816) – Holotype. Complete specimen. Specimen height = 20 mm. Specimen dry – direct light (left), wet – polarized light (right). Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

© Royal Ontario Museum. Photos: Jean-Bernard Caron

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Demospongea (Order: Monaxonida)
Species name: Hamptoniella foliata
Remarks:

Hamptoniella is a primitive demosponge, with a type of skeleton considered transitional between Hamptonia and Hazelia (Rigby, 1986). Demosponges, the same group that are harvested as bath sponges, represent the largest class of sponges today.

Described by: Rigby
Description date: 2004
Etymology:

Hamptoniella – unspecified; possibly from the town of Hampton in Virginia (see Hamptonia). The Latin suffix, ella is added to Hampton to form a diminutive.

foliata – from the Latin folia, “leaf,” in reference to the leaf like aspect of the sponge.

Type Specimens: Holotypes –ROM43816 (H. foliata wrongly referencedROM48816 in Rigby and Collins, 2004) andROM44285 (H. hirsuta) in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: H. hirsuta Rigby and Collins, 2004 from the Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

Other deposits: none.

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

The Trilobite Beds on Mount Stephen.

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

This sponge was described by Rigby and Collins (2004) based on new material collected by the Royal Ontario Museum.

Description:

Morphology:

Hamptoniella foliata is a relatively small sponge, with its body shape varying from funnel-shaped to turbinate. The skeleton is composed of simple and straight spicules that are pointed at both ends (oxeas). The axial zone of the sponge does not have a central cavity (spongocoel) and there is no large opening (osculum). Instead a number of subvertical and relatively large canals are present in the axial area. Smaller sized canals diverge from the larger canals towards the sides and the top of the sponge. Spicules tend to be clustered and parallels to canals. H. hirsuta differs from H. foliata, by appearing more spinose.

Abundance:

H. foliata has been described based on 3 specimens and H. hirsuta based on a single specimen.

Maximum Size:
24 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

Hamptoniella would have lived attached to the sea floor. Particles of organic matter were extracted from the water as they passed through canals in the sponge’s wall.

References:

RIGBY, J. K. AND D. COLLINS. 2004. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and Stephen Formations, British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum Contributions in Science (1): 155 p.

Other Links:

None

Hamptonia bowerbanki

Hamptonia bowerbanki (ROM 53547). Overall view and close up of a large specimen showing the long and coarse oxeas (spicules). Specimen length = 184 mm. Specimen wet – polarized light (both images). Tulip Beds (S7) on Mount Stephen.

© Royal Ontario Museum. Photos: Jean-Bernard Caron

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Sessile
Phylum: Sessile
Higher Taxonomic assignment: Demospongea (Order: Monaxonida)
Species name: Hamptonia bowerbanki
Remarks:

Hamptonia is considered a primitive demosponge (Rigby, 1986). Demosponges, the same group that are harvested as bath sponges, represent the largest class of sponges today.

Described by: Walcott
Description date: 1920
Etymology:

Hamptonia – unspecified, but it comes possibly from the town of Hampton in Virginia. This town is home of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, which Walcott helped to create when he became first chairman of the NACA Executive Committee in 1915 (predecessor of NASA).

bowerbanki – for British naturalist and palaeontologist James Scott Bowerbank (1797-1877), best known for his studies of British sponges.

Type Specimens: Lectotype –USNM66493 (H. bowerbanki) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA. Holotype –ROM44270 (H. elongata) in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.
Other species:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: H. elongata Rigby and Collins, 2004 from the east side of Mount Field in Yoho National Park.

Other deposits: H. parva, from the Middle Cambrian Wheeler and Marjum Formations in Utah (Rigby et al., 2010); H. christi from the Lower Ordovician of Morocco (Botting, 2007).

Age & Localities:

Age:
Middle Cambrian, Bathyuriscus-Elrathina Zone to late Middle Cambrian Bolaspidella Assemblage Zone (approximately 505 million years ago).
Principal localities:

Burgess Shale and vicinity: The Walcott Quarry on Fossil Ridge. The Trilobite Beds and Tulip Beds (S7) on Mount Stephen.

Other deposits: H. bowerbanki from the Middle Cambrian Wheeler and Marjum Formations in Utah (Rigby et al., 2010).

History of Research:

Brief history of research:

Hamptonia was described by Walcott in his 1920 monograph on the sponges from the Burgess Shale. Rigby (1986) redescribed the genus, considering it to be closely related to Leptomitus and included it among the monaxial demosponges. Rigby and Collins (2004) described a new species, H. elongata, from material recently collected by the Royal Ontario Museum on Mount Field.

Description:

Morphology:

Hamptonia is a medium to large sub-hemispherical to globose sponge. The skeleton is composed of simple spicules of two sizes. Bundles or singly spaced long (up to 1 cm) coarse spicules are orientated vertically upwards away from the wall. The space between these large spicules is filled by bundle of small thatched spicules. There is a narrow central cavity and the oscular opening is circular. Faint canals are visible parallel to the long spicules that would have allowed water through the skeleton. Hamptonia may be confused with the central disc of Choia. However, Hamptonia has spicules that are much finer than Choia. H. elongata mainly differs from H. bowerbanki in that it has a branched skeleton.

Abundance:

Hamptonia bowerbanki represents only 0.09 % of the Walcott Quarry community (Caron and Jackson, 2008). Hamptonia elongata is known from a single specimen.

Maximum Size:
210 mm

Ecology:

Life habits: Sessile
Feeding strategies: Sessile
Ecological Interpretations:

Hamptonia would have lived attached to the sea floor. Particles of organic matter were extracted from the water as they passed through canals in the sponge’s wall.

References:

BOTTING, J. P. 2007. ‘Cambrian’ demosponges in the Ordovician of Morocco: insights into the early evolutionary history of sponges. Geobios, 40: 737-748.

CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.

RIGBY, J. K. 1986. Sponges of the Burgess shale (Middle Cambrian), British Columbia. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 2: 105 p.

RIGBY, J. K. AND D. COLLINS. 2004. Sponges of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and Stephen Formations, British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum Contributions in Science (1): 155 p.

RIGBY, J. K., S. B. CHURCH AND N. K. ANDERSON. 2010. Middle Cambrian Sponges from the Drum Mountains and House Range in Western Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 84: 66-78.

WALCOTT, C. D. 1920. Middle Cambrian Spongiae. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology IV. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 67(6): 261-365.

Other Links:

None